August18 , 2022





In all cases the terminal disinfection programme should follow all, or as many as possible, of the following basic procedures. Dry clean.


This involves the removal of any residual food from the feeder system and silo. Portable equipment for cleaning and sanitizing should be placed outside the house or pen.


Litter should be thoroughly removed from the house and transported to a safe area away from stocked houses. Surface dust from ceilings, water pipes, etc. should normally be blown down and then all loose debris from the floor blown out after the litter removal.

Bulk feed bins should be blown down or washed at this stage. Sanitize the drinking water system. This is a procedure sometimes neglected or inadequately carried out but essential in order to avoid the transfer of infection from crop to crop via the drinking system.

The header tank should be drained and checked to ensure that it is free of debris. The tank should then be filled with the required quantity of water and disinfectant added to achieve the required dilution.


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This solution should be allowed to fill the drinking system and left to stand for an hour. After this the system should be drained and filled with fresh water and covers replaced on the tanks.

Pre-clean the house or pen and equipment. Use a detergent sanitizer to effectively clean surfaces to minimize organic challenge and reduce the bacterial load prior to disinfection.

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All surfaces should be sprayed with the solution at low pressure, ensuring thorough wetting. This must include coverage of pipe lines, feeders and drinkers. Externally, loading areas must be included.


An alternative method of application favoured by some is by the use of a foam lance. Following the detergent application, cleaning should be completed with high pressure water until all the areas mentioned are visibly clean. Disinfetion of the house or pen and equipment. This involves the thorough application of the selected broad spectrum disinfectant to all surfaces and equipment in the house or pen, taking full consideration of the required dilution rate, application rate and contact time.

Application can be with any suitable spraying equipment. If a pressure washer is used it should be set to a low pressure and if possible a fan jet should be employed. In recent years a number of larger operations have used equipment designed for orchard spraying, which can be very effective and time saving.

Choose the dilution at which the disinfectant has been independently proven to be effective against disease organisms. Ensure that the dilution rate is established by a test system incorporating an organic challenge. Always select the highest concentration necessary to eliminate the most resistant actual or potential pathogen.

Effective disinfection requires surfaces to be thoroughly wet. An application rate of 250 – 300 ml m2 is a minimum acceptable for any disinfectant.

A higher rate is required on rough or very absorbent surfaces. All disinfectant. A need to remain in contact with the disease organisms for “a minimum contact time”. In practice at least 30 minutes contact time is generally required for effective disinfection. Setting up the house.

All equipment removed from the house, after being cleaned and disinfected, is replaced and litter spread. Fumigating, misting or fogging. After setting up the house this is a final security measure.

In many cases the traditional method of formaldehyde fumigation has been replaced by safer chemicals either applied with thermal fogging machines or as a fine mist or spray. Ensure the house is closed and secure immediately these steps are completed, to prevent the introduction of pathogens.

Effective control of insects, particularly litter beetle, is essential. They are known vectors of insects, particularly litter beetle, is essential. They are known vectors of disease, e.g. Gumboro.

Rodent control is also vital. When an insect problem has been noted, it is advisable to “band spray” the house immediately on depopulation ahead of the migration of the bulk of the insects, which commences as soon as the house begins to cool.

Application of a residual insecticide to the walls and floor of the house after completion of the disinfection procedures will further assist in the control.

Well – disinfected houses can be rapidly re-contaminated by rats or mice, particularly in respect of salmonella. Effective rodent control measures are therefore essential. Baiting of premises at a time when other food supplies are not present is logical. However, it must be borne in mind that the disturbance of litter removal will often cause a resident rodent population to migrate from the houses, only to return after the houses are set up.

Supervision and checking of the terminal disinfection procedures is essential. In large integrated operations this responsibility is not always well defined. Logically it is the farm manager who is in the best position to do this and it is the success of his ensuing flock which can be affected if the terminal hygiene fails.

It is advisable that during and on completion of the terminal disinfection procedures a check – list is completed. This then remains a record of what has taken place and can be reference if problems occur later.

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