June30 , 2022

Miscellaneous Diseases in Fishes



Miscellaneous Diseases in Fishes

i. Head and Lateral Line Disease (also known as Hole-in-the-Head disease):




Begins as small pits on the head and face, usually just above the eye. If untreated, these turn into large cavities and then the disease progresses along the lateral line. Head and Lateral Line Disease is attributed to a nutritional deficiency of one or more of vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus.

It is thought to be caused by a poor diet or lack of variety, lack of partial water changes or over filtration with chemical media such as activated carbon.


HLLE has been reversed by one or more of the following treatments:

1. Increase frequent water changes.

2. Add vitamins to frozen foods.

3. Add flake foods, as they are enriched with vitamins.

4. Add green, either frozen or in leaf form, to the diet.

5. Decrease the amount of beef heart as it lacks many critical nutrients.

(This disease is often confused with another disease called Hexamita, because both these diseases are often seen simultaneously in the same fish. Haxamita is a protozoan disease that attacks the lower intestine).

Read also: Protozoan diseases of fish

ii. Eye Problems:


Cloudy cornea, opaque lens, poor eye, swelling, blindness.


1. Cloudy cornea can result from a bacterial invasion. Antibiotics may help.

2. Opaqueness can result from poor nutrition or a metacercaria invasion (grubs). Try foods with added vitamins and change the diet to include variety.

3. Pop eye (exophthalmia) can result from rough handling, gas embolism, tumours, bacterial infection, or vitamin A deficiency. Gas bubble or bacterial infection can be treated successfully with penicillin or amoxicillin.

4. Blindness can be caused by poor nutrition or excessive light. Lowering the light level and a change of diet to include lots of variety may help prevent it.

Read also: parasitic diseases of fishes: symptoms and treatment

iii. Swim-Bladder Disease:


Abnormal swimming pattern, difficulty in maintaining equilibrium.

Swim bladder problems usually indicate another problem listed here.

If you suspect swim-bladder problems in a fish, first check and treat it for other diseases as listed below:

1. Congenitally deformed bladder.

2. Cancer or tuberculosis in organs adjacent to swim bladder.

3. Constipation

4. Poor nutrition

5. Serious parasitic and bacterial infestation.

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