September24 , 2022

METHODS OF POULTRY VACCINATION & DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN COMMERCIAL POULTRY.

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METHODS OF POULTRY VACCINATION & DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN COMMERCIAL POULTRY.

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Aerosol:

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Infectious Bronchitis vaccine, Newcastle Disease vaccine, and Laryngotracheitis vaccine. Day or night, house closed sufficiently to prevent cross drafts, use sprayer recommended by vaccine manufacturer, minimum spraying time 3-4 minutes, do not open the house for 15 minutes. Protect worker with goggles and face mask. Now also done in a spray cabinet at day one in hatchery for administering Newcastle-Bronchitis and Infectious Bursal Disease.

Water Administration:

Newcastle disease, Infectious Bronchitis, (or the two combined), Avian Encephalomyelitis, Infectious Bursal Disease and Infectious Laryngotracheitis vaccines. Waterer with plastic bottom or glass container best, free of sanitizer in water or container, withhold water one hour in hot weather, or longer in cold weather, vaccine in cold water, and provide enough water space so that 2/3 birds of the flock can drink at one time. Add 0.1% powdered skim milk as stabilizer. All vaccine should be consumed within 45 minutes.

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Read also: Basic management factors that improves flock production

1. METHODS OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION TO DISEASED POULTRY FLOCKS

Commonly used drugs include – antibiotics, anticoccidial, antihistomonals and growth promotants

In Feed:

Often used in preventive or long-term medication. Must be done when mixing feed and requires planning so that delivery and storage on the farm does not delay treatment. Requires no additional work at the farm.

In Drinking Water:

Must be done at the farm and requires supervision. Compared to feed administration there is nodelay in administration or withdrawal, prompt absorption and convenient to use. Birds may continue to drink when sick and “off feed”.

Topical Spray or Dust:

(for Ectoparasites)

Egg Dipping:

Must be done at the hatchery under controlled conditions. Usually results in reduced hatchability or fertility (e.g. antibiotics to control egg transmissible diseases such as mycoplasma).

Individual Bird Injection:

Expensive labor use and time consuming, but sometimes necessary in severe disease or when drug of choice is non-absorbable (e.g. antibiotics).

Note: Some drugs or antibiotics require preslaughter withdrawal time or are not permitted for use in laying birds.

2. METHODS OF POULTRY VACCINATION

INDIVIDUAL BIRD APPLICATION

Subcutaneous injection:

Marek’s Disease vaccine in the hatchery. Inactivated vaccines such as Newcastle Disease Virus, Infectious Bronchitis Virus, Reovirus and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus may be given to Breeder Hens at housing by subcutaneous injection into the back of the mid-neck region.

Conjunctival sac installation

(eyedrop) Newcastle Disease, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Laryngotracheitis vaccines. One hand holds the head, thumb pressing the lower eyelid down, deposit one drop into the eye, said to be faster operation than transnasal drop.

Wing-web puncturehttps://farmingadvicedigest.com/2022/08/10/basic-management-factors-that-improves-flock-production/:

Fowl Pox (pigeon pox), and Avian Encephalomyelitis, Fowl Cholera chickens. Use double-prong sewing machine needle (supplied by vaccine manufacturer), dip into vaccine before each stab, spread the wing to expose the underside (up), stab through, do not touch feather with needles, avoid vessels. For fowl pox, examine for “take” 6-10 days post, swelling followed by scab formation. Revaccinate non-reactor flock. To vaccinate turkeys, puncture the loose skin between the thigh and abdomen.

Feather follicle inoculation

Fowl pox vaccine in turkeys. Remove 2-3 feather follicles over the thigh, brush against the opening of the follicle with vaccine-dipped brush (supplied) or the vaccine may be sprayed on the area with a sprayer, hold the tip 2″-3″ away. Examine for “take” 6-10 days post.

Intramuscular injection:

Vaccines (Infectious Bursal Disease, Newcastle Disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum Fowl Cholera, Infectious Bronchitis, Reovirus) alone or in combination are used in Breeder birds usually just before housing. IM injection is in the pectoral muscles, using continuous flow, automatic syringe.

Embryo Injection:

Vaccines (Marek’s Disease, Infectious Bursal Disease, Newcastle Disease or Infectious Bronchitis) are injected into 18 day old embryonating eggs with an automated machine.

Read also:  Electrolyte for chickens: benefits and how to prepare

VACCINATION SCHEDULE POULTRY

Layers

Age Name of Vaccine Dose Route

5-7th day– Lasota – I/R or I/O

14-16th day—- I.B.D. – I/O or D/W

24-26th day—- I.B.D. (booster) – D/W

30th day —Lasota (booster) – D/W

7th week —-Fowl Pox 0.2 ml. I/M

9th week —Deworming – –

10th week —-R2B 0.5 ml. I/M

15th week—– Debeaking – D/W

17th week—- Lasota – –

 

Broilers. ———-

Age Name of Vaccine Dose Route

3-5th day—- Lasota – I/O or I/n

7-9th day——— I.B.D. – I/O or D/W

16-18th day ——–I.B.D. (booster) – D/W

24-26th day——— Lasota (booster) – D/W

Note : I/N – Intra Nasal; I/O – Intra Occular; D/W – Drinking water; I/M – Intra Muscular

PRECAUTIONS FOR POULTRY VACCINATION

GENERAL

I. Vaccine should have been manufactured by a reputed company

which follows rigid path, standards for vaccines production.

2. Vaccines should be purchased from a shop which has

3. refrigeration and freezer facilities.

4. Vaccine should not have passed its expiry at printed on its labia

5. Viral live vaccine should be transported from the market to the

6. farm on ice.

7. Instructions printed on the label of the vaccine should be

8. strictly followed.

9. Exact dose of vaccine should be adtninstered in the way it is

10. recommended.

11. Vaccines should not be stored for a long line. It may be

12. purchased when needed, but sufficiently in advance so that

13. vaccination could be done on a scheduled date. One should keep

14. an eye whether vaccine is in short supply.

15. Ailing flock should not be vaccinated. It may not respond to the

16. vaccine or to the stress due to the vaccine, may aggrevate the

17. disease present.

18. Vey young chick should not be vaccinated. Maternal

19. antibodies present in them may neutralize the vim? and may not

20. all immune response to develop.

21. Live vaccines should not be used in areas where the disease

22. has not existed,

23. Equipment used for vaccination should be cleaned and

24. sterilised

25. Vaccination should be done during the cold hours of. the day.

Read also: Molting in Chicken: everything you need to know

COMMON ERRORS IN VACCINATIONS

Errors in vaccination of poultry flocks are not uncommon. Following are some of the common problems.

Vaccine Handling :

1. Vaccine stored in an inoperative refrigerator.

2. Two much vaccine mixed before use (over 2 hrs). Reconstituted vaccine quantity is more (not consumed by birds within two hours).

3. Vaccine can-led to house without ice.

4. Water Vaccination

5. Unclean waterline would lead to inactivation of vaccine.

6. Enough water not used.for vaccination.

7. Water lines not, filled before vaccination commences.

8. Water line sanitilers not removed in adequate time before vaccination

Spray Vaccination:

1 incorrect droplet silre used for spraying

2. Too little vaccine mixture applied / not all birds exposed to vaccine

3. Flock improperly primmed before spray vaccination

4. Lights not dimmed during spraying

5. Ventilation system not turned off during spraying

6. Ventilation system not turned off after spraying

Wing Web or Eye Drop Vaccination:

1. Grant inoculators not held vertically during use.

2. Too much vaccine mixed before use.

3. Wing web vaccine given by eye drop and eye drop vaccine given by wing web.

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